While the routine semen analysis can provide important information about male fertility such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, it does not reveal any information about the sperm DNA integrity.
This test is an effective method for measuring the DNA fragmentation in thousands of sperm in an ejaculate. It is a completely independent variable. Men with otherwise normal semen analyses may have a high degree of DNA damage.
Recent research has revealed that subtle abnormalities can be found in sperm samples that seem to be normal according to conventional analysis techniques.The DNA in the sperm head is sometimes fragmented, and this may be the reason why couples with a diagnosis of unexplained infertility do not achieve pregnancy. There seems to be a correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation and aneuploidy.
Research also shows that even if a pregnancy is achieved, there is a significantly higher likelihood that it will result in miscarriage. Fifteen percent of men with normal basic semen analysis profiles have been associated with infertility problems. Moreover, about 8% of men with normal sperm results do have abnormal levels of DNA fragmentation in sperm.
DNA damage in spermatozoa affects both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Its origin can be explained by six main mechanisms:
Most studies of prognostic factors for pregnancy with intrauterine inseminations (IUI) focus on the motility of the sperm after treatment. A total motile count of 1–2 million sperm cells is usually regarded as a threshold value to obtain a pregnancy in cases of unexplained or mild male infertility
More recent studies have provided evidence for the inverse relationship between clinical outcomes of IUI and the amount of DNA fragmentation
Infection, Leukocytospermia, Febrile illness, Elevated testicular temperature, Diet, Drug use, Cigarette smoking, Exposure to environmental and occupational pollutants, and free radicals from normal metabolism, advanced age.
Increased sperm DNA fragmentation is also associated with Varicocele.
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After initial semen analysis test at famous maternity hospital, we found condition of Azoospermia(with zero sperm in semen), so doctor referred us to Dr.Praveen joshi for further consultant. Dr Joshi explained us everything in detail, and reasons why sperm count can be zero. He suggested some Hormone tests and scanning to decide if sperm production is normal in the body. After this Dr.Joshi himself have operated PESA at Cloudnine and successfully extracted sperms required for IVF. Trust worthy doctor, I would recommend everyone to go for this doctor.
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